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    The peaceful atom is a new dimension of Kazakh-Uzbek relations

    Once, Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi demonstrated humanity by serving the country, taking care of nations development is everyone’s responsibility. Also, A.Nayai said that scarifying my life into the Future of Nuclear Energy in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan as an expert in the global economy is my civil duty. Our great poet Abai says “Everyone has dispute in the poem”, which somewhat encourages me, and also shows that there will be a really great competition in this case.The history of the development of atomic energy by humanity is about 80 years old. From 1954 onwards, in the worldwide, stable electricity from nuclear power plants, and as a result of technological possibilities, radioactive isotopes have expanded. Thus, the “peaceful atom” is part of the various sciences, which is likely to become a new aspect of the Kazakh-Uzbek cooperation in the future.The primary source of energy for nuclear energy is uranium fuel. Large-scale exploration work in the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan allowed to identify large uranium reserves. From 1945 to now, about 2.8 million tons of uranium have been produced worldwide, with Canada accounting for 18 percent, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, 17 percent, and the United States 13 percent, and the rest are manufactured in the rest of the world.The primary source of energy for nuclear energy is uranium fuel. Large-scale exploration work in the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan allowed to identify large uranium reserves. From 1945 till now, about 2.8 million tons of uranium have been produced worldwide, 18% from Canada, 17% from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, 13% from United states and the rest are manufactured in the rest of the world.During the Cold War, the Soviet Union accelerated the production of uranium, but in the 1990s, the emergence of independent Central Asian states on the political map left the full share of the nuclear industry within the Union’s largest uranium reserves, and became a part of the transitional economies.As a result, the developed countries dependent on importing raw materials from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and they had become a large raw material base for uranium products till today.As a result of the new technological capabilities, the explored uranium reserves in the world have grown by 25% over the last decade to about 6.1 million tons. This indicates that the uranium reserves in the world are still growing. According to data for 2018, the total reserves are concentrated in Australia – 30%, Asia – 24%, Africa – 20%, American continent – 14%, Europe-Russia – 12%.In the 20th century, the USSR was the nuclear power world in which the full nuclear industry was formed. As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has entered into a full spectrum of nuclear power plants, and Ukraine, Armenia, Lithuania, and Kazakhstan have been included in the political map of the nuclear power industry. In the last century, in the majority of countries of the world, primarily in the Eastern European countries – the USSR, its main successor – Russia has continued to do so and has become one of the few countries that provide commercialized services in this area.As for Ukraine, the history of atomic energy – the Chernobyl catastrophe (USSR, modern Ukraine, 1986) is a remarkable event in the world of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, the share of nuclear power in the structure of energy in Ukraine (55%) occupies the second place in the world after France (72%). At present, the energy strategy of Ukraine is planned to build a nuclear fuel-producing plant based on Western technology, nuclear fuel storage and new reactors. As for the countries of the Caucasus, Armenia is the only one nuclear reactor operating on the whole of the country’s total electricity.Despite the fact that Lithuania has become a country that has finally abandoned nuclear energy in Europe in 2009, it is now under review that the Baltic countries’ energy security needs to be restored, and now, 70% of the country’s renewable energy industry, including the construction of a new nuclear power plant (Vitaginas), is under discussion. At the same time, projects of the Belarusian NPP and Baltic NPPs in the Kaliningrad Region of Russia (Suspension) indicate that nuclear power potential in the region will continue to be weaker.As for Central Asian countries, large-scale exploration work on uranium resources in Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan has not been carried out so far. Taking into account that the Aktau NPP was discontinued in 1999, the USSR’s nuclear industry has become a major source of raw materials for Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, with large uranium reserves and several mining and smelting factories.According to recent data, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan own 16% of the world’s uranium reserves. Uzbekistan is among the world’s top uranium producers since 2009. In 2010-2017, Kazakhstan (40%) and Uzbekistan (4%) provide an average of 44% of annual world production [3]. Taking into account the fact that not all uranium producers carry out raw export, the export potential of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan on the raw uranium market exceeds the OPEC’s export potential in the world oil market. OPEC countries produce 35% of world oil and provide 50% of global oil exports [4].The role of OPEC countries in the price of oil market as well as the role of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in the uranium market are not comparable, as the comparison of the oil market and uranium market seems contradictory. However, no one can deny closer ties between markets and hidden competition. Today, some of the energy exporting countries still can not get out of the “Dutch Disease”, and the second example is that the “resource of the curse” is lost and the “gratitude of God”. At the same time, the uranium market in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan does not bring national wealth for the two countries. Ultimately, we should work together to grow together.Large uranium mining companies include Kazakhstan Kazatomprom, Novo Mining and Metallurgical Enterprise of Uzbekistan. These organizations provide 25% of world uranium production, but their scales in international business are limited to their states. Also, no memorandum or partnership information between national uranium mining operators of the two countries has been encountered. so, they should adapt strategic partnership for between performance and revenue.Getting fuel from raw materials is a very complex process. For many years, these technological capabilities have been financed by countless countries and Greater Political Institutions for global operations in nuclear power, such as the construction of nuclear power plants. At the same time, in the energy strategy of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, it is also important to create a full range of nuclear industry, apart from raw materials exports. However, the importing countries of uranium raw materials are not interested in stopping their production and receiving fuel from Central Asian countries. Also, it is clear that major players do not go for the new market participants easily. Transnational energy corporations have shared the supply of NPPs around the world, and their strategic policy and market behavior is in line with their origin. At the same time, Kazakhstan has made some progressive initiatives with Russia on integration of production cycles, as well as organization of nuclear fuel production at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant. In addition, a low-enriched uranium bank, which operates under the direct control of the IAEA in 2017, was opened in the country. This is a great symbol of Kazakhstan’s non-proliferation and non-discrimination from global processes in the nuclear industry. Moreover, Uzbekistan is also interested in exporting valuable uranium products in order to increase the current potential – Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel production and storage. Particularly part of the integration cannot be evaluated effectively, which is a guarantee of sustainable development for both countries, and the lack of subordination of bilateral cooperation.In 2018, the share of nuclear power in global power generation amounted 5% and maintains a steady growth of 1.4% [5].

    Development of atomic energy is possible only with the international partnership and cooperation with various international organizations. Regional cooperation in the development of nuclear energy in Central Asia is also important. Including cooperation between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan is a guarantee of regional security and peace. Today, we see the strengthening of trade and economic relations between these countries. The secret of deepening this bilateral partnership is energy diplomacy, and regional, bilateral communication platforms, which are in its implementation. Ensuring energy partnership between the two countries – trade and economic, transport and logistics, ecological, cultural tourism in the whole region. it opens the way for brotherhood and solidarity in various spheres of life.Magical energy of nuclear power is surfing the central Asian sky. Sooner or later, nuclear station will be built up in our region and burn the “Prometheus’s fire”. However, our responsibilities are heavy. Bearing this in mind, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan should consider partial integration of industrial complexes ranging from uranium mining to storage of radioactive waste. Development of atomic energy should be based on the friendship of the two countries, regional openness and international cooperation.

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